Intertriginous dermatitis (ITD), also referred to as intertrigo, results from sweat being trapped in skin folds with minimal air circulation. When the sweat is not able to evaporate, the stratum corneum becomes overly hydrated and macerated, facilitating friction damage that is often mirrored on both sides of the fold.
How does moisture lead to skin breakdown?
Moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) is caused by prolonged exposure to various sources of moisture, including urine or stool, perspiration, wound exudate, mucus, saliva, and their contents. MASD is characterized by inflammation of the skin, occurring with or without erosion or secondary cutaneous infection.
Does wet skin promote skin breakdown?
Patient repositioning when the skin is moist, e.g., due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved.
How does moisture damage increase the risk of pressure ulcers?
Introduction. Moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) is not a direct cause of pressure ulcers, but its presence contributes to weakening of the skin and increases local friction (objects rubbing together) and shear (forces moving in different directions).
When skin is exposed to too much moisture over an extended period of time it can begin to soften and break down?
Maceration is defined as the softening and breaking down of skin resulting from prolonged exposure to moisture. It was first described by Jean-Martin Charcot in 1877. Maceration is caused by excessive amounts of fluid remaining in contact with the skin or the surface of a wound for extended periods.
What happens if skin stays wet?
Excessive exposure to moisture can cause maceration, a serious problem for your skin. Skin maceration happens when your skin is broken down by moisture on a cellular level. Once this damage occurs, your skin is much more vulnerable to other types of problems and complications.
What are the four types of moisture-associated skin damage?
MASD is the collective term for four types of moisture damage to the skin (IAD, ITD, periwound and peristomal damage). The damage is not caused by moisture alone; chemical irritants, proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes and an alteration in the skin pH all contribute to the destruction of the barrier function of the skin.
What prevents skin breakdown?
Strategies for Preventing Skin Breakdown
- Patient Repositioning and Turning. Bedbound patients require regular turning and repositioning to prevent the formation of pressure injuries. …
- Proper Skin Cleaning. …
- Proper Nutrition and Fluid Intake. …
- Assessment and Documentation. …
- Staff Education.
How do you prevent moisture lesions?
Regularly clean the area using a cleanser that is pH balanced. Pat the skin dry and avoid friction to the skin. Change clothes and bed linen regularly to keep the skin cool and dry. Apply a barrier film to protect the skin from moisture.
What is the best treatment for moisture associated skin damage?
Management of MASD
- Wash vulnerable skin with a gentle cleanser with minimal rubbing. Avoid the use of soaps with an alkaline pH. …
- Use absorbent dressings for highly exudative wounds and match dressing changes to exudate levels. …
- Use atraumatic tapes or adhesives. …
- Apply a barrier to vulnerable skin.
Why does incontinence cause skin breakdown?
The urea in urine can be broken down by the skin bacteria to form the highly alkaline ammonia, which shifts the pH of the skin further disrupting the barrier. not managed correctly, sets up a vicious cycle that further drives the inflammation and skin breakdown.
What is moisture damage?
Moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) is the general term for inflammation or skin erosion caused by prolonged exposure to a source of moisture such as urine, stool, sweat, wound drainage, saliva, or mucus.
What is the difference between a moisture lesion and a pressure sore?
Edges If the edges are distinct, the lesion is most likely to be a pressure ulcer. Wounds with raised edges are old wounds. Moisture lesions often have diffuse or irregular edges. Jagged edges are seen in moisture lesions that have been exposed to friction.
Which of the following is at a higher risk of skin breakdown?
Incontinence, back of mobility and poor blood circulation are factors that place a resident at a higher risk for skin breakdown, or pressure ulcers.